The Fundamental Particles

This analysis is based on three assumptions. The first assumption is that our universe is the surface of a hyperspherical wave expanding in the fourth dimension at the speed of light. The radius of our hypersphere (R) is equal to the age of the universe (T) multiplied by the speed of light (c) : R=Tc. The “surface area” of a hypersphere has the units of volume . The surface area of a hypersphere of radius R is 2π^2R^3 and this is the current volume of the universe. I am using the Planck length as the wavelength of the universe for convenience – it is probably something different . Since light travels on a great circle in the universe on a circumference of the hypersphere and the circumference is 2π times the radius. The radius of the universe (R) in the fourth dimension is increasing at the speed of light and the “surface area” of our hollow hypersphere (which is the volume of the universe) is increasing at a rate of 6(π^2)(c^3) (T^2). Light cannot keep up with the increasing volume of the universe and the fraction of the universe we cannot observe is 1/2π.

The second assumption is all matter and energy is composed of four dimensional particles which I have given the inelegant name of “knucks”. In our three dimensions I visualize them as like a child’s game “Jack” or “knucklebone” with “pointers” in three directions – all at right angles to the adjacent pointers and occupying a one Planck length cube. There exist an equal number of electrically positive and negative knucks. The pointers can rotate independently and energy is measured in the rotations of the pointers in what I am calling “rotation units” (RU). Each RU has a value of one half of a Planck unit.

If the universe wave length ( λ) is measured in Planck lengths then the number of contiguous knucks in the nascent expanding universe would be 2π^2(R/λ)^3 . This is based on an estimation that λ equals the effective length of side of a cubic knuck in the third dimension.

If the radius of the nascent universe is assumed to have been 0.15 meters ( it may have been up to 100 times less) when it broke up. The early universe volume when it broke continuity was 0.075^3 x 3.14×4/3 =.016 m^3. and it would contain .016/1.616E-35(Planck length)^3 knucks. The early universe would have contained 3.8E+102 knucks all adjacent to each other.

I postulate 13 knucks in a proton and 3 in an electron. If the number of atoms making up the matter in the universe today is about 1E+82 – mostly hydrogen- then the number of knucks in matter in the universe is about 16E+82. This estimate could be wildly off since every photon of electromagnetic energy currently moving thru the universe includes a pair of knucks and we can observe only a part of the universe. Also there is no conservation of knucks. If the amount of dark matter is five times the amount of detectable matter (as astronomers seem to think) then the number of knucks in the universe may be five times as many or 1E+84.

If there are currently 1E+84 knucks in the universe then the fraction of the original knucks remaining is 1E+84/ 3.8E+102 = 2.6E-19 which is a VERY small fraction.

The third assumption is the forces that are exerted across empty space are carried by discrete particles which are mostly waves in continuous fourth dimension particles ( Robert Boyles aether). The particles are gravitons and Maxwell’s virtual photons.

The positive and negative knucks emit what I am calling the Maxwell’s virtual photons with each cycle of the universe. Maxwell’s virtual photons (Mvps) are generated by all the knucks in the universe with each cycle of the universe but they are not actual photons (like those that result when electrons change energy levels). There are two types of Maxwell virtual photons (Mvps). One type of Maxwell virtual photon carries an electrical sign- either positive or negative – which I will designate as Mvp+ and Mvp-. The second type of Maxwell virtual photon carries a magnetic sign- either north or south – which I will designate as MvpN and MvpS. Each positive knuck emits one MvpN and one MvpS in opposite directions and one Mvp+ at a right angle from the MvpN and MvpS with every cycle of the universe. The corollary holds for each negative knuck , which emits Mvp-.

Gravitons are generated by the knucks in our three dimensions of the universe. Knucks cycle at a rate proportional to the energy acquired by the knuck and one graviton is emitted at each cycle of the knuck- which is not the same as the cycle of the universe. The graviton is emitted opposite the direction the knuck has been moving.

All force and energy changes are the result of gravitons and Mvps interacting with knucks. Each interaction between a knuck and a graviton or Mvp results in a change of one RU in the knuck.